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مُساهمةموضوع: pour rachid 3   الثلاثاء 29 يونيو 2010 - 11:40

INTRODUCTION


Many studies have been done concerning moroccan literature ;but it is till now rare those about moroccan women

writings in its particularities as one of the important issues of gender studies .From the very beginning,I can see a

great horizon but very cryptic, with a such littleness in references.


Thinking about how to weave all i could collect about this subject leds me to focuse on two principale parts :

Theoritical background of Moroccan women writings, and how fatema Mernissi,as a Moroccan writer ,practiced her

feminist "desobedience", her girlhood , and her passion through her novel "Dreams Of Trespass" as a second part.

The reason which for I have chosen this topic "Moroccan Women Writings" comes from a great belief that literature is

an important means that could change priorities , and bring things from the margin to the center of society.

To avoid any misunderstanding ,the use of the term "moroccan women writings",will be considered , conventially in

this paper ,the literary works created by Moroccan women writers


PART ONE THEORITICAL BACKGROUND OF MOROCCAN WOMEN WRITINGS/
/

DIFFERENT DISCOURSES FOR ONE CHALLENGE

Literary theory is an umbrella term for many different movements in the formal study of texts. There are many
popular schools of literary theory, which take different approaches to understand texts. Most actual theorists
combine methods of more than one approach.
Looking in the moroccan library,one could see that the feminine voices are diverse and have various origins .
many schools have been historically important : postcolonialism ,feminism ....and themes such as Family ties,
unfair tradition ,political conflict , identity and altérité are mainly interlocked in these works.
Many tesmonials say that Moroccan Women Writings have started only about the last twenty years of the twenty century.and social issues, debate on democracy,identity are an important theoritical background of Moroccan women writings.
It is only very newly (1980s) that Moroccan women writings " knew an irreversible transformation. Their
recent access to knowledge allows them finally to employ speech, verb, writing which becomes for number of
them an instrument of trespassing". 1 htt://www.limag.com/em.htm

Diaconoff, Suellen in her book The Myth of the Silent Woman: Morroccan Woman Writers says " Beginning was in
1 980s and gathering force in the last decade of the twentieth century, Moroccan women writers have become the
latest group of Middle Eastern women to break their silence by writing both fiction and non-fiction". The Myth of
theSilent Woman:Moroccan Writers examines representative French-language texts from Moroccan women writers. Suellen Diaconoff
situates these works in a discourse of social justice and reform, arguing that they contribute to the emerging national
debate on democracy and help to create new public spaces of discourse and participation. In novels and short
stories, essays and memoirs, including one powerful text by a dissident and former political prisoner(oufkir malika)
these authors contest hegemonic systems of thought and practice, reappraise traditional spaces and limits, shatter
taboos and transgress borders. In so doing, they profoundly undermine easy assumptions about Moroccan women,
feminism, and democracy, challenging the stereotype of thewhile boldly silent woman." (11498) Diaconoff, Suellen 2009
The Myth of the Silent Woman: Morroccan Woman Writers.
Suellen Diaconoff situates French-language texts from Moroccan women writers in discourse of social justice
and national reform, arguing that they contribute to the emerging debate on democracy and help to create new
spaces of discourse and public participation. The myth of the silent woman : Moroccan women writers
The female literature in Morocco is linked to the internal dynamics of the society, and comes into sight in break
with the practices of the masculine writers. Excluded from expressing herselves in the traditional Moroccan
society, the women go out of their silence and they indeed attend at the beginning of female expression in the
literary field put under the sign of a self-defining conquest. Exceeding their status of object of masculine
presentation, numerous women are obvious by their capacity of uprising against imposed silence, by a gushing
out of for a long time forced back, prohibited, , and think finally having only thought », underlines Rajaa Nadifi, professor in the faculty of letters Aïn Chock Casablanca.
About Women, Gender, and Language in Morocco. Fatima Sadiqi(2003) ,Deborah Kapchan says" Sadiqi's book is rich in detail. It provides a cultural map for the study of gender
and linguistic practice in Morocco. Sadiqi rightly asserts that work on gender must take into account "the dynamics of multi-lingualism, reading of religion, illiteracy, and orality" in order to
avoid Western ethnocentric paradigms of feminism".
"The nineties mark a true release of moroccan women writers . They appropriate all forms of expres​sion(autobiographies, tries, news, novels, poems, etc) to change mentalities. « This generation of writers counted among
its ranks of the women which aspired, by means of the writing, to the realization of an " I" different and genuine »,
raises Najib Redouane in his work .Écritures féminines au Maroc
Rachida benmassoud says that women have achieved the creative kind of qualitative and quantitative
accumulation especially at the level of the narrative. The forums that focus on women's writing and launched by
the Arab World Association Women's Creativity in Fez early nineties played a key role that gave consideration
and opened serious dialogue on women's issues""1رشيدة بنمسعود: الكتابة النسائية. بحثا عن إطار مفهومي

About Women, Gender, and Language in Morocco. Fatima Sadiqi(2003) ,Deborah Kapchan says" Sadiqi's book is rich in detail. It provides a cultural map for the study of gender and
linguistic practice in Morocco. Sadiqi rightly asserts that work on gender must take into account "the dynamics of multi-lingualism, reading of religion, illiteracy, and orality" in order to
avoid Western ethnocentric paradigms of feminism"

For the actual period, every reader will note that female writings are not a simple reproduction of masculine
literature. Although they have common topics with masculine literature (return on colonial history, criticism of
abuses of power, protest of certain negative traditions for the whole society, aspiration for a modern life), these
topics are comparatively treated in another way. . Certain masculine writers report the status of women or
represent the body, word, internal thoughts, feelings, feminine suffering; this vision cannot correspond
completely to the one that have the women themselves.. and the female world of F. Mernissi has got nothing to
do with the one introduced by T. Ben Jelloun, for example ;and the relationship between "daughter and mother"
in the Feminine dreams of fatima mernissi made of a collusive and confidential wayhave never appeared in a
masculine work.

In the novel"Anissa Captive" (1990) of Fatiha Boucetta,we discover across the analysis of Najib Redouan
(REDOUANE, Najib (2006)Écritures féminines au Maroc. Continuité et évolution) how the destiny of a woman in
Morocco is already drawn since her childhood.The author centers her study therefore on physical captivity but
especially morality of the young protagonist who sees her muzzled life and its dreamsruin by the weight of an unfair
tradition which demands on behalf of little girl sacrifices, renunciations, responsibilities and sense of duty. This work
of Fatiha Boucetta hits according to Najib Redouane, on a topic very common of Moroccan female literature, to
know, the abandonment forced by the dreams of small girl which see themselves caught by cruel reality.

".Faites parler le cadavre"(1991) of Farida El Hany Mourad carries one objective and biting look on morals and
social practices which affect Morocco and gnaw at it of inside, notably ondangerous and lethal sorcery which
plunges it into the obscurantism and prevent it from achieving technology and progress of medicine. Workalso
put forward, as underlines it Najib Redouane, conflict constant of the woman against the society and tradition to
change his destiny and mentalities elsewhere in la mauvaise passe"(1990), written by Aïcha Diouri,of origin
Moroccan but living in the Senegal, such a painter, sketch one portrait scourging on the reality of youth
dakaroise, delivered in ellemême, person at a loose end and with whom other than agonies ofdelinquency and
prostitution to remain. Najib Redouane underline that this work does not content itself with determining social
misery and the disenchantment of youth, but offers resolutions and report the lack of responsibility on behalf of
the parents and on the State.Although this novel moves away from the reality been next by the writers Moroccan
and of their battle against silence and estrangement of women, Najib Redouane wanted to give an important
place in sound written to this young writer of Moroccan origin who makes so left of Moroccan female literature
and brings a different point of view on reality.

But in transgression of taboos," la laison" (1994) is of far the novel which dares most, since as his name points it
out, it deals of the call of senses and flesh, big human passion destructive, violent but stifled in a rigid society
which leaves any puts in female wishes and where sexuality is a taboo subject. To protect itself from retaliation
and from the reproving look of sound circle, the writer, as underlines it Najib Redouane, has besides been
obliged to take a pseudonym. They know today that they owe this big work of Moroccan female literature in Ghita
El Khayat. By this work, the writer reports social norms of Moroccan society which condemn loving passions and
reifies the woman in her relation with the man. Najib Redouane underlines on the other hand the originality of this
writer, notably his clear tone, without complexes and his percussive verve which dare to represent every facets
of passionate relations without falling in vulgarity
novel
"Moi ,Mireille lorsque j'étais Yasmina",1995 of Fadela Sebti redraw drama dawning coeducational marriages between
Westerners and Muslims in which love makes room for the intolerance, for rejection, for violence and in silence. So
this novel tells difficulties of adaptation to one foreign culture, poor communication in the couple, the taxation of
norms, usages and firm belief in which protagonist does not stick and constant internal conflict to attract of preserve
his respectability and its person. Najib Redouane studies notion here of identity and altérité within the coeducational
couple of the novel and put the emphasis on the fragility of the position of the woman within the couple who in
everything instant can be repudiated. In this work the writer reports status of the Moroccan woman who represents
nothing to the eyes of sound husband, from the society and from the law of the country .

"Ma vie mon cri" (1995) of Rachida Yacoubi, novel autobiographic told in the first person is an evidence
audacious and emotional, a cry from the heart which comes to tell and to report the situation of all women daring
to say "not " in abuses, in humiliation and in the ill-treatments of their husbands, protected by a hypocritical and
sectarian, rigid society. By his writings Rachida break silence and tightens a hand to all those who suffer of them
feminine marginalization repudiated and divorced. This novel tells subtly and with dignity “ after repudiation ” in
the daily, how the heroine saw the tearing of loneliness and becomes one bothered with the eyes of the society
just because she chose freedom.

conclusion:A reflection on the major conclusions of this paper shows that the women of
the Maghrib have met various social, economic and political challenTh eir story is the one of a continuous struggle at
various fronts. global issues that increasingly aff ect women’s daily lives.
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